boars disease
JUSTIN. B
JUSTIN. B

"Hunting is the activity of the gods that belongs to people by mistake”

Do wild boars carry diseases?

 Wild boars carry many diseases including bacterial and viral diseases and are the carriers of more than 50 parasites; they can transmit diseases to other wild animals, livestock, pets, and humans as well. Transmission of the diseases can occur through nasal, oral passages, or direct skin contact. Foreign animal diseases can be very contagious and with the increasing populations of wild pigs risk of infection by those diseases has also increased.

Diseases transmission from pigs to animals:

Wild pigs are a potent source of spreading infectious diseases to livestock and are a really serious threat for livestock industry because the whole milk and meat industry is dependent on livestock and when they are affected badly, it also destroys the economy. Infectious diseases which can be transmitted from wild pigs to animals are as follows:

  • Foot and mouth disease
  • African swine fever
  • Hog cholera
  • Bovine tuberculosis
  • Pseudorabies virus
  • Swine brucellosis

 Diseases transmission from pigs to humans:

 Zoonotic diseases are those diseases which are transmitted from animals to human being either through direct contact like ingestion of infected meat indirectly through contact with body fluids like saliva etc. bees flies and ticks can also transmit Zoonotic diseases. Some of them are as follows:

  • Trichinosis
  • Rabies
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Giardiasis
  • Cryptosporidiosis
  • Swine influenza viruses
  • E. coli
  • Leptospirosis  

Bacterial diseases

 Brucellosis:

 Brucellosis occurs in wild pigs and is caused by bacteria Brucella suis. It is transmitted mainly through sexual contact but can also spread through body fluids or by ingesting infected meat.

 Transmission to livestock:

If this disease occurs in the swine population it can show various clinical manifestations like inflammation of mammary glands or testicles, abortion, paralysis of the hind limb. Usually livestock remains asymptomatic after exposure to this disease and the domestic industry is considered brucellosis-free.

 Transmission to humans:

This disease can be transmitted from wild pigs to humans in various ways; some of them are through orophyrangial or nasal passages when humans come in direct contact with body fluids like saliva or blood, or when infected meat is ingested by them.

 Leptospirosis:

 It is also a bacterial disease which is caused by spirochete bacteria; it also spreads through direct on indirect contact with infected wild pigs either with animals or humans.

 Transmission to other animals:

 Abortions, fever, rash are the main symptoms appearing in wild pigs affecting this disease. Livestock like cattle and sheep can also be infected and can show the same sign and symptoms.

 Transmission to humans:

When humans are in direct contact with contaminated urine or water, they can become infected and can show symptoms like pain in joints and muscles, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and fever.

 Pathogenic E.coli:

E.coli is found in the intestines of humans as well as animals, when it becomes pathogenic it can cause food poisoning in humans. Transmission occurs only through the oral route by the ingestion of material which becomes infected with E.coli.

 Transmission to other animals:

 The bacteria can be transmitted to animals causing abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and weakness.

Transmission to humans:

 Ingestion of the food infected with E.coli can cause illness among humans including cramping, diarrhea, fever, and muscular pain.

Salmonellosis:

 Salmonellosis is caused by bacteria named Salmonella. Among all the foodborne illnesses, it is the most common. Ingestion of food infected with Salmonella bacteria can become the reason of this disease.

 Transmission to other animals:

 This disease can be asymptomatic sometimes means symptoms are not visible, when symptomatic it can cause weakness fever, cramping, diarrhea. It is easily transmitted from swine to livestock and other animals.

Transmission to humans:

  Eating the undercooked food which is infected with Salmonella bacteria can cause foodborne illness among humans. Headache, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and weakness are the main clinical manifestations.

 Tuberculosis:

Tuberculosis has been reported among wild pigs in Hawaii and is caused by Mycobacterium Bovis. When an infected animal breathe out, bacteria occupy the surrounding air and all those animals inhaling that air which is infected with this bacteria would become ill. Ingestion of contaminated food can be another way of transmission of the disease.

Transmission to other animals:

 Swine pigs can transmit this disease to pets, animals, and other livestock causing enlarged lymph nodes, weight loss, cough which can be chronic.

 Transmission to humans:

 In humans this disease can be transmitted through many ways like inhaling of contaminated air, ingesting infected food and by direct contact through damaged skin causing fever, chills, tightening of the chest, rigor, and weight loss.

Viral diseases:

 African swine fever:

 African swine fever virus is responsible for causing this disease; it lies in the category of foreign animal diseases. It is usually transmitted by direct contact with feral swine or ingestion of infected food.

 Transmission to other animals:

Transmission of this disease to livestock can cause bleeding, changes in skin color, abortion, and eventually death.

 Transmission to humans:

No, it cannot be transmitted to humans.

 Classical swine fever:

In the U.S this disease was eradicated in 1978 but low and high virulence forms still exist, it is also a foreign disease. Direct contact and ingestion of contaminated food are two main ways by which this disease can be transmitted.

 Transmission to other animals:

This virus can be transmitted to domestic animals causing life-threatening symptoms including bleeding, abortion, high-grade fever, and death. These all are the symptoms caused by low virulence classical swine fever virus while low virulence virus may be asymptomatic sometimes causing fever and reduced reproductive performance.

 Transmission to humans:

 No, it cannot be transmitted to humans.

 Foot and mouth disease:

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is caused by the FMD virus and has many ways of transmission either with direct contact or inhalation of air infected with the virus.

Transmission to other animals:

 Ulcers and vesicles on the feat, mucosal membranes, and tongue are the typical findings of this disease in domestic animals like cattle, sheep, and goats, etc.

Transmission to humans:

 No, it cannot be transmitted to humans.

 Hepatitis E:

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has two kind kinds of genotypes HEV3 and HEV4. Both are responsible for viral infection. It is mainly transmitted through contaminated water but the ingestion of infected meat is another mode of transmission.

Transmission to other animals:

Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver, HEV can cause hepatitis in swine pigs as well as in domestic animals including sheep and cattle.

 Transmission to humans:

 Yes, this virus can also infect humans when they eat undercooked food contaminated with this virus. Jaundice, cramping in the abdomen, dark-colored urine, and vomiting are signs and symptoms of this infection.

Influenza A:

H1N1 and H1N2 are the most common genotypes of the Influenza virus. Inhaling the particle either through nose or mouth is the most common way of transmission; somehow infection can also spread through direct contact.

Transmission to other animals:

It can be asymptomatic in swine pigs causing only weakness, fever, and laziness while other domestic animals including cattle, sheep, horses, and poultry can be equally infected showing symptoms of runny nose, fever, lethargy and eventually death.

Transmission to humans:

Yes, many cases of shared infection between swine pigs and humans have been reported either by inhalation of droplets containing a virus or through direct contact. The virus usually causes symptoms of runny nose, sneezing, cough, low or high-grade fever, and vomiting.

Porcine Circovirus:

Porcine Circovirus (PCV2) causes infections in swine pigs, sometimes it may require another pathogen for spreading the infection. This virus can remain in infected swine pigs for months and can be transmitted through oral, nasal, urinary or fecal routes by direct contact with the infected swine, or it can be transmitted through vectors like insects, mosquitoes and bees fly.

Transmission to other animals:

Animals can become infected with this virus showing signs of shortness of breath, growth problems, diarrhea, and death.

Transmission to humans:

No, it cannot be transmitted to humans.

Parasitic diseases:

Trichinellosis:

A roundworm called nematode is responsible for spreading the infection, transmission occurs through the ingestion of meat containing larvae which can become mature in the body of other animals.

Transmission to other animals:

This disease can produce symptoms related to abdomens like diarrhea, abdominal pain, or vomiting in animals being infected.

 Transmission to humans:

When undercooked meat containing encysted larvae is ingested by humans, larvae can develop into mature worms causing abdominal cramping, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and other symptoms.

Conclusion:

 Many diseases which are listed above can be transmitted from wild pigs to humans as well as other animals either through direct contact with the infected animal or indirect ways like ingestion of contaminated food or water, whatever the way of transmission is, these diseases can cause a significant risk to domestic, wildlife or human health. Infection in domestic animals can also affect the economy of a state because of affected meat and poultry production. Humans are also badly infected with these diseases predisposing a greater threat to their well being, so precautions must be taken to reduce the chances of infection, like wearing gloves when coming to contact with pigs, avoid touching body fluids and washing the hands properly after a direct contact or field dressing.

Read another article about: Reproduction and breeding of wild hogs – Hogs hunting

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *