According to binomial nomenclature, their Scientific Name is Susscrofa.
Among all the stories about invasive species, the story about European wild boar stands out the most. There is a probability that they came from Germany. Hunting preserve was established in Graham County by an English corporation in 1908. They stocked many animals like wild boars, deer, buffaloes and bears. The population of wild boars increased massively, and they prevailed in the surrounding hilly areas. They started trampling the soil; therefore eradication program was started by Smoky Mountains National Park, the primary purpose was to control the increasing population of wild boars.
The wild boar is sometimes called the European wild boar. it is also known as the feral swine, common wild pig, or only a wild pig.
Features of European wild boar:
Its characteristics include the small size with a lean body and tusked pig with a straight back, long narrow snout and small-sized bristles along the end and flanks. Some of them have a large, compact body with short legs. Its color is dark brown in young individuals and has grey hair in older ones. The largest boar on record is the enormous hog ever killed is an unbelievable 1,051 pounds in weight. A local taxidermist measured the animal and reported that its tusks were at least 5 inches in length. Usually, the height is reported 55 to 120 cm of Adult, At its Shoulder. In terms of weight, males are generally 20-30% heavier than their females. Their size and weight depend on the region and environment they live in. For example, in Europe, the average for males is 165-220 pounds and 130-180 pounds for females. In Northeastern Asia males do weigh up to 600 pounds.
As they are nocturnal animals, so they search for food at night. They are omnivores, and their diet is comprised mainly of nuts, roots, seeds, acorns, fruit, small reptiles, other small nocturnal animals and rodents. Occasionally, they eat eggs of small mammals and bird.
They belong to order Artiodactyla and Family Suidae.
The first pigs were well adapted in their new environment, and many of them found their way to freedom, creating a population of feral pigs in other regions. Phenotypic plasticity allows them to adjust their temporal patterns to match local conditions and in turn, increase their fitness. Wild boar populations increase because these animals exhibit nocturnal activity; it means that this species is well adapted to circadian rhythms.
Introduction to other localities:
Populations of wild boar were introduced to North America for hunting in about 1890s, during the first half of the 20th century again.
The wild boar of today is usually a hybrid breed with dual characteristics of both Eurasian boars and feral pigs.
All countries in Europe except the British Isles, southern Italy and southern Greece have these wild boars. Native wild boar can be found throughout Northern and Central Europe, the Mediterranean and as far south as Indonesia. It is a sued native of much of the Pale arctic and is being introduced in the Nearctic, Neotropic, Oceania, the Caribbean islands, and Southeast Asia. They are native to forests ranging from western and northern Europe and North Africa to India, the Andaman Islands, and China. They have also started raiding significant cities of Europe, looking for food from rubbish bins and for jostling tourists. In recent years there has been an uncontrolled growth in the population of wild boar.
It is an Old World species that existed since before the Ice Age. It is suggested that the wild boar is an ancestor of the domesticated pig.
They live in Woodlands often in the vicinity of pasture lands. They are commonly found and are abundant animals, occurring throughout the globe, except for Antarctica. Their natural habitats cover parts of Europe and Asia. They preferred grassy savanna areas, wooded forests, marshy swamplands, agricultural areas and scrublands as their habitats.
To escape hunting some wild boar mated with domestic pigs after running away. Hunting is available in almost All areas of Europe. It’s shooting in Europe is an ancient and honorable tradition. Knights and princes pursued them with packs of hounds, but modern hunters typically hunt wild boar from high seats, or during driven hunts. it is an ancient and honorable tradition in Europe.
Wild boars abound everywhere from the Balkans to Germany, and they cause notable damage to agriculture and forestry. They can have a negative impact on forest regeneration. However, harvesting of mature wild boar is quite a challenge, and his tusks, mounted on a plaque Euro-style, are a trophy every mount maker would be proud of.
In many of these cultures, wild boar meat has figured prominently in the traditional diet. Unlike its domestic cousin, wild boar has very lean beef and is low in cholesterol. It is an excellent alternative to beef and pork. It is the best option for those who want food that is good for them without sacrificing taste and quality. Wild Boar is high in protein content. They are a good source of useful nutrients such as monounsaturated fats and zinc. As wild boar is close to the domestic pig, they do not taste the same. They feel like an intermediate between pork and beef, with unique juicy, delicious taste. The meat is a bit darker in a color that is due to the excellent iron content. With a rich and nutty flavor, wild boars have something unique.
Attack on humans by European wild boars:
They attack humans only very rarely and when they feel threatened. They attack humans in the following circumstances: When they feel cornered or threatened, to defend themselves against hunters and To protect their piglets if it’s a female. Usually, their attacks are more frequent during the wild boars’ rutting season that is from November to January in agricultural areas with broader forests or on paths that lead to forests. It attacks a human, because of their sharp tusks; the victims can suffer injuries, especially in the lower part of the body. If after the initial attack, the victim still shows movement, the wild boar will step back and then attack again. When they attack, they usually charge and try to make their victim trip and fall to the lower ground. More about attrack on humans.
How to survive a wild boar attack?
- One should Remain calm.
- One should keep a safe distance.
- Then Slowly back away from the wild boar.
- If you have time must try to reach higher ground such as a boulder, possibly even climb a tree.
- If attacked, keep your footing.
- Try sidestepping quickly to avoid being swung by it.
- If all fails, fight back with whatever available at hand or at the moment such as sticks, your hands, a knife, a gun if available until mauling ends.
- Try to keep your standing position by all means as you can suffer more significant injuries if you fell down.
Are they dangerous?
Wild boars might be dangerous not only because of their aggression but also because they are the carriers of diseases that can be transmitted to humans such as tuberculosis, hepatitis E and influenza. The also cause hundreds and thousands of accidents on the road each year that can result in severe injuries and deaths for driver. Wild pigs have gained quite a reputation for being aggressive towards humans and other animals. It is believed that these animals routinely grow to enormous sizes and will readily attack and eat humans or pets when given an opportunity or let the feel threatened.
Effect on the ecosystem:
They are environmental and agricultural pests. They cause damage to the environment through rooting, wallowing, and selective feeding of food, and the most vulnerable are the longleaf pine seedlings. They also destroy crops and pasture, as well as the habitat of native plants and animals.
How Their Mounts can be made?
European makes their skull mount with oak, walnut, cedar, cypress and weathered wood.
Europen wild boar