Reproduction and breeding of wild hogs
Female wild hog can reach sexual maturity at the age of 3-4 months. On the other hand, most wild sows reach puberty at the age of one year old. The wild hog’s gestation period is about 112-120 days and can vary from individual to individual as 100-140 days. Fetal litters in them average about 5-6 embryos or fetuses and range from 1-14. Females of this species are polyestrous that means they can come into estrus every 18-24 days if they are not successfully bred. Uterine implantation is biased toward left horn, but it is typically not significant. Their observed intrauterine mortality is approximately 30%. Usually, fetal litters are often male-biased, but this sex composition is also not substantial. There is also an observed shift from male-biased structure to female-biased composition because of the litter size increases.
The female pig when is ready to breed will show signs of being in heat when reaches puberty at about five months of age. Some slow-growing types and underfed will be older when they reach puberty. The female will come into heat every three weeks throughout the year if she is not mated.
Wild hog can breed year-round, but births peak in spring. Gestation is usually 114 days. Wild hogs have characteristically very high reproductive potential because of puberty at a young age, also due to large litters and frequent breeding. It is a non-native species, and the expanding range of this species provides evidence of its high reproductive capacity. In general, the various aspects of the reproductive biology of wild hogs in the US are intermediate between that of domestic swine and the Eurasian wild hog. Environmental and genetic factors play an essential role in determining the parameters for the reproduction of these wild species.
The rate of ovulation, their pregnancy rate, and litter sizes all increase with its age. Both the nutritional input and reproductive output levels in them are also positively correlated. They build a suitable place within 24 hours before giving birth to their offspring to protect them. The newborn or neonatal litters average 4-6 piglets and can also range from 1-12. As such, the number of lactating teats is highly correlated with the number of piglets in the offspring.
The oldest known, which was documented to be still capable of breeding, was 14 years of age.
Reproduction in these populations can occur during any month, with both sows and hogs being capable of breeding year-round. But there are 1-2 seasonal peaks inbreeding.
Moreover, seasonal patterns with one or two seasonal peaks can occur within the same population, varying from year to year.
A hog is an uncast rated male domestic pig. Similar to the females, male individuals are also sexually mature as young as 4-5 months of age, and most of them reach puberty within the first year of their life. Generally, most hogs participate in breeding by about 12-18 months of age.
The testicular weight in males increases until three years of age and then starts decreasing after five years of age. Hogs compete in male-male fighting for breeding opportunities with their females. When matured, hogs develop shoulder shields of thickened subcutaneous tissue that protects them during the male-male struggle. Such fights can be severe, with the chance of getting injured of both combats, or possibly death occurs because success in these fights depends on size, so most of the breeding done in their populations is by the larger and older males. Multiple paternities of litters do occur and is reported to be very uncommon.
The factors, for instance, regional photo-period, nutrition and rainfall all influence the breeding season in a population. They are capable of producing more than one litter per year.
The production of a second litter was only observed when they lost the entire first litters, but they can breed while still nursing a litter of piglets. Usually, they do not conceive when still nursing a litter of piglets. It was observed in eastern Tennessee that numerous wild hogs were found to breed within a month of farrowing, however, very uncommonly did these females conceived. Also, when they did conceive, only very small litters were produced. Production of multiple litters is observed when food resources are more abundant. It is even more common among adults than younger ones.
Many animals adhere to seasonal breeding, but they like humans breed year-round, and off springs can be born at any time of the year, but still, births tend to peak in the spring and fall.
The primary wild hog breeding season lasts until April. Still, contrary to this wild hog will breed twice a year or even three times a year, giving birth to as many as twelve off springs each time! As they usually conceive in winter months, the end of the year, followed by a gestation period of almost four months of duration. There is spring time birth when food is becoming easier to find, and the temperatures are not such extremes to kill the newborns.
The exception to first-time mothers, they usually give birth in autumn or late summer. This reduces competition for food in the spring when many more are born.
Domestic pigs have huge breeding success as compared to wild hogs; therefore, there can be a misconception regarding their population increase.
Inter-Breeding: Reproduction and breeding of wild hogs
Hog–pig hybrid is a hybridized offspring from a cross between the Eurasian wild hog and any domestic pig. Their hybrid exists throughout Eurasia, Australia, the Americas, and in other places where Europeans imported wild hogs to use as game animals.
Inter-breeding is the result of mating closely related individuals of different species. There can be many situations in which a higher or a lower inbreeding can appear, crossing a parent even with its offspring, crossing the family between them that is among siblings, or crossing pigs from different litters but with the same sire or grandsire. Mating of close relatives, should be avoided in any situation such as brothers with sisters or parents with their off springs.
There is no evidence the African warthogs are interbreeding with wild hogs, and that also doesn’t seem likely to occur.
This is usually one hog per 20 sows when supervised with hand matings, but in small herds or during extensive conditions, the ratio could be between 15 and 18 sows per hog. Reproduction and breeding of wild hogs
A well-fed sow will produce at least ten piglets (litter) from each pregnancy and may have two litters each year when bred with hog.
It should be used only in herds that are superior and only those hogs that are clearly outstanding. With very few exceptions the wild hog gene pool appears little affected by contamination or cross-breeding with domestic pigs. Also, low levels of genetic disease have historically been present in the wild hog stock due to inter-breeding between captive wild hogs and domestic pigs in order to get good quality, better and leaner meat in the local herd and this also results from accidental breeding between wild hog and domestic pigs. Despite all this, most domestic genes quickly disappear in local hog, presumably due to wild hog genes being more vigorous and dominant. So no domestic characteristics have been seen in the wild hog. DNA tests suggest that the UK hogs are no different from European hogs, both having a small number of domestic genes.
They do not release HCG or PCG like humans, so human pregnancy test can not be used for any other animals. However, after artificial insemination or mating, another hormone will be secreted from their bodies, which is named Estrone Sulfate. Once they are pregnant, this hormone will be increasing in blood or urine. Their pregnancy test is known as Ruminant Pregnancy Test, and this test is extremely accurate in determining pregnancy status if used in accordance with the kit manufacturer’s instructions. The sensitivity of this test is 99.3% in serum samples. It means that the test will identify 99.3% of the pregnant females.
When the number of estrous females increases, overworked hogs may result in a hog fertility problem. Some overworked hogs have a notable decrease in their sexual behavior and do not breed with many females. Reproduction and breeding of wild hogs
More causes of infertility include more nebulous factors such as environmental or nutritional stress failure of the hormonal maintenance of pregnancy, a systemic disease in an individual, exposure to toxic chemicals and chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses.